Did Music Evolve?

first_imgNature is running a nine-part series on music.  The most recent entry by Josh McDermott, psychologist at University of Minnesota, asked how music might have evolved.1  The theme, with variations, is that nobody knows.    Music is a uniquely human trait.  It is ubiquitous across cultures.  Bird songs and animal calls, while musical to us, do not appear to have a music-appreciation function to the animals themselves.  The great apes have nothing like it.  McDermott stated the theme in paragraph one:We think we understand why we are driven to eat, drink, have sex, talk and so forth, based on the uncontroversial adaptive functions of these urges.  The drive to engage in music, a compulsion that is arguably just as pervasive in our species, has no such ready explanation.  Music was one human behaviour that Charles Darwin was uncertain he could explain, writing in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex: “As neither the enjoyment nor the capacity of producing musical notes are faculties of the least use to man … they must be ranked amongst the most mysterious with which he is endowed.”With access to all the latest insights from evolutionary biologists and psychologists, was McDermott at least able to suggest a leading explanation?  No; “Music’s origins have remained puzzling in the years since, although there is no shortage of speculation on the subject.”  Speculation is cheap.  Science demands a more convincing body of evidence.    McDermott ran through the list of short answers: attracting mates, pacifying babies, a spin-off of language evolution (which only creates two problems).  “These discussions run the risk of being mostly ‘Just-So’ stories, as there are few data with which to test or constrain theories.”  He didn’t have much more to say other than to suggest ways future studies might suggest possible answers.    For his finale, he called music an “enduring puzzle” that may never have an evolutionary explanation. Music is universal, a significant feature of every known culture, and yet does not serve an obvious, uncontroversial function.  As such it stands in contrast to other universal human behaviours.  Speculation about its possible adaptive functions has been popular since the time of Darwin, and shows few signs of resolution.  Empirical approaches offer a promising alternative.  There is no guarantee that a full account of music’s origins will ever emerge; in fact, that seems quite unlikely at present.  Nonetheless, the right experiments will reveal a great deal – about the innate core of musical behaviour, the traits that might be unique to music, and the possible origins of those components that are not.  All of which promises to enrich our appreciation of this human obsession.His coda thus repeated the theme allargando in minor.1.  Josh McDermott, “The evolution of music,” Nature 453, 287-288 (15 May 2008) | doi:10.1038/453287a.Do you want to follow the Darwinians, who admit that after 149 years they have nothing but speculations and just-so stories?  How much time should they get before admitting defeat?  Why not come back to the theists who love music as a gift of God to sentient creatures?  Music demonstrates that we are more than physical bodies.  Music is the expression of souls and spirits who are able to communicate rationally on a divine level.  Drive a Darwinist crazy: sing a hymn.    May we suggest a short piece to cleanse out of your mind all thoughts that music evolved?  Of the thousands of beautiful pieces of music that could be selected (and we are sure each person has their favorites), here is one that approaches musical perfection – a blend of human voice and orchestra that, to a well-trained ear, will lift one’s soul to heaven.  It achieves a perfect balance of simplicity and complexity, melody and harmony, dynamism and tranquillity, loud and soft, orchestral tone color, alternating masculine and feminine voices, and a designed structure that enhances its spiritual message.  It’s the fourth movement from the Brahms German Requiem, “How Lovely Is Thy Dwelling Place.”*  English versions are available, but a particularly superb performance is sung in German by Gachinger Kantorei of Stuttgart, conducted by Helmuth Rilling, available for just 99 cents on iTunes or at eMusic.  This gem is only 5 minutes long.  Listen through good headphones and try to convince yourself that musical artistry this superb is a product of evolution.*Text: How lovely is Thy dwelling place, O Lord of hosts.  O my soul; it longeth, yea fainteth for the courts of the Lord.  My heart and flesh cry out for the living God.  Blessed are they that dwell in the house of the Lord; they will ever praise Thee.(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Begleite uns auf einer Tour durch das Groundspeak Headquarter

first_img SharePrint RelatedNa klar! – Natürlich lernen die Lackeys DeutschApril 5, 2011In “Deutsch”Nie alleine cachen: Geocaching-Gruppen und -OrganisationenAugust 20, 2019In “Deutsch”Besucht das Geocaching HauptquartierNovember 5, 2019In “Deutsch” Share with your Friends:More Jeden Freitag um 14:00 Uhr kommen Geocacher von Nah und Fern, von den benachbarten Bürogebäuden bis China, um das Groundspeak Headquarter zu besuchen. Egal von wo sie kommen, eines haben sie gemein: eine große Liebe zu Geocaching und eine Geschichte, die sie erzählen möchten. Groundspeak verwandelt sich augenblicklich vom geschäftigen Treiben der Lackeys in eine Empfangshalle voller Geocacher aus aller Welt die sich hörbar vergnügt unterhalten, Trackables ablegen und zusammen sitzen.Sara und NicoleZusammen mit Nicole (Louie Bliss), einer Kollegin aus dem Community Relations-Team bin ich  (gonzogrrl) eine der glücklichen Lackeys, die jedes mal anwesend sind und Cacher begrüßen, wenn sie den epischen HQ Cache, GCK25B suchen. Oft fragen Cacher: “was macht ihr hier”?Wir beantworten täglich E-Mails und Anrufe und helfen den Leuten bei der Lösung von Problemen um ihnen das bestmögliche Geocaching-Erlebnis zu ermöglichen. Wenn Geocacher eintreffen, unterbrechen wir die Arbeit und begleiten sie, wenn sie den Cache suchen, Fotos in der Fotokabine machen, Souvenirs kaufen und auf dem großen Kartendisplay in Echtzeit verfolgen, wie weltweit Caches geloggt werden.Sole SeekerWenn Du vorbeikommen möchtest, kannst Du sehr einfach einen Termin bekommen. Schicke einfach eine E-Mail an contact@geocaching.com. Erzähle etwas über Dich, woher Du kommst und wann Du uns besuchen kannst und wir schicken Dir die Koordinate des Büros (Hinweis: wir befinden uns nicht in der Mitte des Lake Union. Schockierend, ich weiß). Wir haben viel Arbei, deshalb versuchen wir, Besuche auf Freitag, 14:00 Uhr zu terminieren. Manchmal ist auch einer der Gründer oder einer der anderen Lackeys anwesend. Wir freuen uns, die Leute zu treffen, die aus dem Spiel mehr machen als “Tupperware im Wald”!Ich habe sehr viele Cacher getroffen aber ich kann mich immer noch an einige ihrer Geschichten erinnern. Da ist Sole Seeker, der uns besucht hat, um seinen 10.000. Fund zu feiern und der überrascht war, als wir für ihn ein Schild gemacht und Ballons aufgeblasen haben, um mit ihm zu feiern. Und da ist J&J Brown der uns von seinem großen getarnten Cache in seinem Vorgarten erzählt hat, der alle Sucher narrt weil er (Achtung, Spoiler) wie ein Baum aussieht. Und foomanjoo, ein weltreisender Fotograf, der ein paar Caches in Korea gefunden hat und auf dem Weg zu seinem nächsten Abenteuer, Geocaching entlang der Route 66, war.Aber egal wer Du bist und ob das HQ Dein fünfter oder 5000. Fund ist, wir heißen Dich willkommen auf dem Lilypad. Wir hoffen, Du kommst bald.last_img read more

Double duty for water polo stars: Canete, Anota fielded in open water swim

first_imgGilas Pilipinas motivated amid pressure to deliver SEA Games gold LATEST STORIES Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students00:59Sports venues to be ready in time for SEA Games01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Catriona Gray spends Thanksgiving by preparing meals for people with illnesses Photo from Kuala Lumpur SEA Games Website.KUALA LUMPUR—The country’s bets in the men’s open water swimming happen to be water polo players, too.Teodoro Roy Canete and Mico Anota will comprise the men’s team to the 10-kilometer competition to be held Friday morning at Water Sports Complex in Presint 6, Putrajaya.ADVERTISEMENT SEA Games in Calabarzon safe, secure – Solcom chief WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding Man sworn in as lawyer by judge who sentenced him to prison as a teen 20 years ago Read Next Swimming in Philippine women’s side in the competition to be held in the famed river are Melissa Gray Courtney and Erica Kristy Lukang.Canete and Anota are top scorers for the water polo team which will have a break from competition.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC LOOK: Venues for 2019 SEA Games Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Flags of SEA Games countries raised at Athletes Village MOST READ UPLB exempted from SEA Games class suspension View commentslast_img read more

OnePlus 7 Pro possible prices in India leaked, it could be cheaper than expected

first_imgOnePlus 7 Pro is being touted as the company’s most premium flagship offering yet. The Pro model is said to come with a few extra top-end features compared to the regular OnePlus 7 and hence it is also expected to launch at a higher price. There have been a few speculations regarding the OnePlus 7 Pro price in India with a general consensus being that it will be around Rs 50,000. This has now been reiterated by tipster Ishan Agarwal, who has just leaked out what could be the final prices of the OnePlus 7 Pro.Agarwal in his tweet reveals that the OnePlus 7 Pro India price will start at Rs 49,999. This is for the base model with 6GB of RAM and 128GB of internal storage. There will also be an 8GB + 256GB variant that might cost Rs 52,999 and lastly a top-end variant with a whopping 12GB of RAM and 256GB of internal storage that will be priced at Rs 57,999. The OnePlus 7 Pro will launch in Nebula Blue, Mirror Grey and Almond colours.Exclusive: Here’s the #OnePlus7Pro India Pricing:6GB+128GB: 49,9998GB+256GB: 52,99912GB+256GB: 57,999Disclaimer- Prices MAY change before launch under some circumstances and I can’t be 100% sure about such leaks.#OnePlus7 Pro #OnePlus7Series #OnePlusIndia pic.twitter.com/Rgo2oD8kpAIshan Agarwal (@ishanagarwal24) May 4, 2019The tipster adds a disclaimer that the final prices could change before the launch, so we would ask you to take these leaked prices with a pinch of salt for now. The pricing does keep in line with speculations that the OnePlus 7 Pro would cost similar to the OnePlus 6T McLaren Edition.advertisementThe rumoured pricing of the OnePlus 7 Pro also means the regular OnePlus 7 will be priced lower than Rs 50,000. If the company stays close to the pricing of the OnePlus 6T, then the OnePlus 7 can be expected to cost around Rs 40,000 in India. According to a study from a market research firm called techARC, the OnePlus 7 price could be 12.6 per cent more than the OnePlus 6T, which puts it around Rs 39,500.The OnePlus 7 Pro is rumoured to sport a QHD+ notch-less display with a 90Hz refresh rate, a pop-up selfie camera, triple camera setup with a 3x zoom lens and a 4,000mAh battery with 30W Warp Charge fast charging support. Of course, you can also expect a Snapdragon 855 chipset to power the device.The OnePlus 7 Pro will launch alongside the OnePlus 7 on May 14 in India. The Pro model is already up for pre-booking in the country on Amazon India and those interested will have to purchase a Rs 1,000 gift card to pre-book the OnePlus 7 Pro.ALSO READ | OnePlus 7 pre-booking to start from 12 pm today: Here’s how you can get itlast_img read more

VT LEAGUE FINALS ACTION

first_imgThe inaugural VT league finals took place last weekend, with some exciting action in both the semi finals and grand finals in both the men’s and women’s division, with two matches heading to drop offs and another totaling an amazing 19 touchdowns. For all the action from the days play view the attached summary. Related Filesvt_league_finals_report-docvt_league1-jpglast_img

10 months agoMan Utd boss Mourinho: My 2 friends in the Premier League

first_imgMan Utd boss Mourinho: My 2 friends in the Premier Leagueby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester United boss Jose Mourinho says two of his fellow Portuguese are the Premier League managers who are closest to him.In an interview with Soccer AM, he revealed who his best pal is among the current crop of Premier League bosses. “Nuno (Espirito Santo) was my player so I have a relationship with him from before,” he said.”Marco (Silva at Everton) I have known for years and he’s a good guy too.”Former goalkeeper Nuno was at Porto for years in two separate spells, with Mourinho his boss from 2002-04.When asked if he ever had a night on the town with Nuno, Mourinho was a little more coy.”In spite of the fact that we are both now managers I think we have a thing that I was your manager and you were my player,” he added.”That’s nice for me. There is always that little thing in the relationship.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

Video: Watch Arizona’s Football Players Do Their First Haka War Dance Of The 2015 Season

first_imgArizona players watch as teammates perform their first Haka dance of the season.Arizona Haka DancePregame routines don’t get much more intimidating than Arizona’s “Haka” dance. The dance, a traditional Maori war dance from New Zealand, has become a tradition for the Wildcats. Arizona’s football players have performed the first Haka of the season. It’s pretty awesome. First Haka of the Year #HardEdgeCamp #BearDown pic.twitter.com/BpIvKAUEXe— Matt Dudek (@AZ_Matty_D) August 23, 2015That’ll get you fired up. Arizona opens its 2015 season Sept. 3 against UTSA.last_img

Suit alleges Motel 6 discriminated against Latino customers

first_imgPHOENIX – A civil rights group sued Motel 6 on Tuesday, alleging it discriminated against some Latino customers at two locations in Phoenix by giving their whereabouts and personal information to U.S. immigration agents who later arrested at least seven guests.The lawsuit by the Mexican American Legal Defence and Educational Fund said Motel 6 had a corporate policy or practice of giving Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents information that guests provided at check-in.It also alleges that Motel 6 provided such information without requiring authorities to get a warrant or without having a reasonable suspicion that crimes were being committed.“We are seeking to deter any (law enforcement) operation of this sort,” said Thomas Saenz, president of the civil rights group.Motel 6 declined to comment on the lawsuit but said in a statement that it takes guests’ privacy seriously.The national budget motel chain said in September that its Phoenix employees will no longer work with immigration authorities after the Phoenix New Times newspaper reported that workers were providing guests’ names to agents who later arrested 20 people on immigration charges.In a tweet at the time, Motel 6 said: “This was implemented at the local level without the knowledge of senior management.”Earlier this month, the Washington state attorney general sued the chain, saying it had violated a state consumer protection law by providing the private information of thousands of guests to immigration agents without a warrant.The lawsuit alleged Motel 6 was aware that agents used the registration information to single out guests based on their national origin. Attorney General Bob Ferguson’s office began investigating after news reports about the Phoenix case.The chain has said it had told its more than 1,400 locations that they were prohibited from voluntarily providing guest lists to immigration authorities.The Phoenix lawsuit was filed in federal court on behalf of eight unnamed Latinos who stayed at two Motel 6 locations in the city during June and July. All but one of the eight was arrested.ICE agents visited some of the guests at their motel rooms a day after they showed passports, driver’s licenses or identification cards issued by the Mexican government to Motel 6 employees, according to the lawsuit.As a result, one woman was deported from the United States, while a man spent 30 days in a detention centre until he could raise a $7,500 bond. In two instances, ICE agents laughed when guests asked them whether Motel 6 had provided their personal information, the lawsuit said.It said the eight guests had a reasonable expectation that their information would not be shared with federal authorities and alleged that the discrimination was made because of their race or national origin.The Latinos who sued said they suffered emotional distress, fear and humiliation.They are seeking undisclosed financial damages and are asking a judge to declare the information sharing a violation of anti-discrimination law and constitutional protections against unreasonable searches and seizures.Immigration and Customs Enforcement wasn’t targeted in the lawsuit. Yasmeen Pitts O’Keefe, a spokeswoman for the agency’s operation in Arizona, declined to comment on it.___Follow Jacques Billeaud at twitter.com/jacquesbilleaud. His work can be found at https://www.apnews.com/search/jacques%20billeaud .last_img read more

Arrests made following attempted ATM thefts

first_imgA short time later the truck was located in Taylor, B.C.The suspects were seen fleeing on foot from the vehicle and arrested. Police Dog Services assisted in locating the passenger hiding in the grass, near the truck.Constable Chad Neustaeter, of the Fort St. John RCMP, says he was glad that nobody was injured during this incident.Douglas Goodings is facing charges of break and enter, flight from police, assaulting a Peace Officer with a weapon, and two counts of failure to comply with recognizance.  The male passenger was arrested on an outstanding warrant.Goodings is also facing additional charges for another attempted ATM theft which occurred on April 19 at a gas station at the west side of Fort St. John.Goodings remains in custody to attend court at a later date. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – On Sunday, April 20, before 5:00 a.m., Fort St. John RCMP received a report of a suspicious pickup truck with a tow rope hanging over the tailgate leaving a gas station on 96A Street.Police attended the scene and observed a smashed window and a broken ATM that was ripped from the wall.Officers made patrols and located the vehicle which then collided with a police vehicle in an effort to flee. The investigation is continuing and additional charges may follow.last_img read more

Former MP Ateeq kidnapped businessman UP govt tells SC

first_imgNew Delhi: The Uttar Pradesh government Thursday told the Supreme Court that former MP Ateeq Ahmad, who was lodged in Deoria jail, had indeed assaulted and kidnapped a businessman on December 26 last year.Confirming the incident, the UP government said CCTV cameras in the jail complex were tampered with at the time. A bench of Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and justices Deepak Gupta and Sanjiv Khanna said it would consider the report submitted by UP government on April 23. Also Read – Uddhav bats for ‘Sena CM’In a report submitted through senior advocate Vijay Hansaria, appointed as amicus curiae (friend of court), the state government said departmental action against five jail officials has been initiated. Hansaria, assisted by advocate Sneha Kalita, told the bench that jail norms were relaxed with respect to visitors meeting the former parliamentarian. In his submission, the senior advocate said there are 109 cases registered against Ahmad from 1979 to 2019 which include 17 murder cases, 12 cases under UP Gangster Act, eight under Arms Act and four under UP Goonda Act. Also Read – Farooq demands unconditional release of all detainees in J&KHansaria said eight cases pending investigation were registered against Ahmad between 2015 and 2019 of which two are murder cases. The report said the state government has constituted two committees which prima facie found names of two persons, including businessman Mohit Jaiswal’s, in visitors register for meeting Ahmad. It said the committees have found the jail superintendent and other jail officials guilty for the assault on the businessman, and departmental proceedings against five officials and the state government has suspended three persons. The report further said that after the incident was reported in media and FIR was lodged by the businessman, Ahmad was transferred from Deoria jail to Bareilly jail in UP and efforts were being made to arrest the associates of the former lawmaker, who were involved in the incident. Ateeq Ahmad was a five-time MLA and one-time MP and has been jail since Feb 11, 2017. In the past he was associated with political parties including Samajwadi Party and Apna Dal (Sonewal faction). “In interrogation, the jail staff and the prisoners have denied the incidence of assault in jail but the joint team found in the inquiry that some CCTV cameras set up in the jail have been tampered with and a persons meeting with Ateeq Ahmad had been granted relaxation also against rule. The joint team prima facie found that the jail superintendent and the officers/ employees of the jail administration to be guilty for this incident,” the report said. The UP government report said some accused have been identified on the basis of CCTV footage of Deoria jail and for their arrest, police teams have been sent to their possible hideouts in Gautam Buddh Nagar, Prayagraj and Delhi. It said a police team led by Lucknow SP has been leading the investigation in the case. The top court was hearing a PIL filed by lawyer and BJP leader Ashwini Upadhyay seeking a life ban on politicians convicted in criminal cases besides the setting up of special courts to expeditiously try cases involving elected representatives. During the previous hearing, the court was told by Hansaria that there were over several heinous cases pending against the former MP and still he had the audacity to kidnap the businessman to the jail. Businessman Jaiswal had filed an FIR on December 28, 2018, alleging that he was kidnapped from Lucknow and taken to the prison where he was assaulted by the jailed don and his aides and was forced to transfer his business to them. Lucknow-based realtor Jaiswal had alleged that he was tortured and forced to transfer five of his firms in the names of the former lawmaker and his jailed son. The combined assets of the firms were worth Rs 45 crore, the FIR said, adding that Ahmad also took away the car of Jaiswal and other belongings before releasing him.last_img read more