Did Music Evolve?

first_imgNature is running a nine-part series on music.  The most recent entry by Josh McDermott, psychologist at University of Minnesota, asked how music might have evolved.1  The theme, with variations, is that nobody knows.    Music is a uniquely human trait.  It is ubiquitous across cultures.  Bird songs and animal calls, while musical to us, do not appear to have a music-appreciation function to the animals themselves.  The great apes have nothing like it.  McDermott stated the theme in paragraph one:We think we understand why we are driven to eat, drink, have sex, talk and so forth, based on the uncontroversial adaptive functions of these urges.  The drive to engage in music, a compulsion that is arguably just as pervasive in our species, has no such ready explanation.  Music was one human behaviour that Charles Darwin was uncertain he could explain, writing in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex: “As neither the enjoyment nor the capacity of producing musical notes are faculties of the least use to man … they must be ranked amongst the most mysterious with which he is endowed.”With access to all the latest insights from evolutionary biologists and psychologists, was McDermott at least able to suggest a leading explanation?  No; “Music’s origins have remained puzzling in the years since, although there is no shortage of speculation on the subject.”  Speculation is cheap.  Science demands a more convincing body of evidence.    McDermott ran through the list of short answers: attracting mates, pacifying babies, a spin-off of language evolution (which only creates two problems).  “These discussions run the risk of being mostly ‘Just-So’ stories, as there are few data with which to test or constrain theories.”  He didn’t have much more to say other than to suggest ways future studies might suggest possible answers.    For his finale, he called music an “enduring puzzle” that may never have an evolutionary explanation. Music is universal, a significant feature of every known culture, and yet does not serve an obvious, uncontroversial function.  As such it stands in contrast to other universal human behaviours.  Speculation about its possible adaptive functions has been popular since the time of Darwin, and shows few signs of resolution.  Empirical approaches offer a promising alternative.  There is no guarantee that a full account of music’s origins will ever emerge; in fact, that seems quite unlikely at present.  Nonetheless, the right experiments will reveal a great deal – about the innate core of musical behaviour, the traits that might be unique to music, and the possible origins of those components that are not.  All of which promises to enrich our appreciation of this human obsession.His coda thus repeated the theme allargando in minor.1.  Josh McDermott, “The evolution of music,” Nature 453, 287-288 (15 May 2008) | doi:10.1038/453287a.Do you want to follow the Darwinians, who admit that after 149 years they have nothing but speculations and just-so stories?  How much time should they get before admitting defeat?  Why not come back to the theists who love music as a gift of God to sentient creatures?  Music demonstrates that we are more than physical bodies.  Music is the expression of souls and spirits who are able to communicate rationally on a divine level.  Drive a Darwinist crazy: sing a hymn.    May we suggest a short piece to cleanse out of your mind all thoughts that music evolved?  Of the thousands of beautiful pieces of music that could be selected (and we are sure each person has their favorites), here is one that approaches musical perfection – a blend of human voice and orchestra that, to a well-trained ear, will lift one’s soul to heaven.  It achieves a perfect balance of simplicity and complexity, melody and harmony, dynamism and tranquillity, loud and soft, orchestral tone color, alternating masculine and feminine voices, and a designed structure that enhances its spiritual message.  It’s the fourth movement from the Brahms German Requiem, “How Lovely Is Thy Dwelling Place.”*  English versions are available, but a particularly superb performance is sung in German by Gachinger Kantorei of Stuttgart, conducted by Helmuth Rilling, available for just 99 cents on iTunes or at eMusic.  This gem is only 5 minutes long.  Listen through good headphones and try to convince yourself that musical artistry this superb is a product of evolution.*Text: How lovely is Thy dwelling place, O Lord of hosts.  O my soul; it longeth, yea fainteth for the courts of the Lord.  My heart and flesh cry out for the living God.  Blessed are they that dwell in the house of the Lord; they will ever praise Thee.(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

10 Visual Steps To Self-Publishing Your Book On Amazon

first_imgYou can also add up to seven keywords.Recommendation: Think of the words readers might use to find your work in a search string. Choose those words. If it is a book about Steve Jobs, for example, you might include: Steve Jobs, Apple, iPhone, Macintosh, Silicon Valley, Ashton Kutcher, iPad. 6. Give Your Book A CoverEven an eBook should have a cover, although it is not required.  Amazon provides guidelines for uploading cover images and also includes a rather limited tool to create your own cover.Recommendation: I strongly encourage you to hire someone to create a visually appealing cover for your work if you don’t have the skills for this. Services such as eLance can connect you with graphic designers at affordable prices.  Luckily, Amazon makes this rather easy. First, it asks you to choose if you will enable digital rights management (DRM) or not. If you enable DRM, this makes it harder for others to share your work and potentially harder for it to be copied and sold without payment.Odds are very high that you will never lose sales (or money) because your eBook did not have DRM enabled. My recommendation is to go DRM-free. Click “do not enable digital rights management.” Now upload the book from your computer.Amazon accepts the following formats:Word (DOC and DOCX)HTMLePubTextPDF8. Formatting and PreviewingIf your work has minimal formatting requirements—it looks like a normal work of fiction or non-fiction, for example—Amazon’s upload service is extremely good at retaining your formatting. Nonetheless, you should still preview your work even after successfully uploading it. If your work contains numerous images, for example, and/or charts or other special formatting requirements, you may need to use a special program for that and then save the document in PDF format. Amazon’s upload service should retain the proper formatting.Recommendation: It’s still best to always remember that an eBook is presented on a screen. Screens come in many sizes – from iPad Mini’s to iPhones to a new BlackBerry and many others. Works that include multiple graphics, say, may simply never look as good on a electronic screen as they do in print.After uploading your work, use the “Online Previewer” link to see how your book will look on different devices. Then, from the drop down list, Amazon lets you see what your book will look like on select Kindle devices, iPhone and iPad. If you wish to see how it will look on other devices, or in a browser, you will need to download the “previewer” tool. Serverless Backups: Viable Data Protection for … 5. Book CategoryAmazon encourages you to add up to two “categories” for your book. This can include everything from “Body, Mind & Spirit” to “Dystopian Fiction.” Tags:#Amazon#ebooks#publishing Recommendation: Chances are your book crosses more than two categories. Search Amazon for the book(s) that you think is most like yours. In the details page, Amazon includes the categories selected for that book. Use those.  Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting These are your words, this is your story; a tale of pathos and woe, heartbreak and longing, action, violence, sex, death and transformation. Its overarching message will no doubt resonate deeply with the reader. Except, to have readers, your work must be published. Luckily, this is now easy to do for practically anyone. Where once writers had to rely upon agents and publishers to consider their work, anyone can publish their novel, essay, or non-fiction masterpiece on Amazon’s Kindle platform. Why Choose Kindle?The Kindle is a series of eReaders and tablets offered by Amazon. In parallel, the company has also constructed an entire eBook publishing platform that allows authors—any author—to reach potentially more than a billion readers around the world.Along with the Kindle device, a Kindle app is available for nearly every major web browser, smartphone platform and for both Windows and Mac-based computers.  Publish your work once via Amazon’s “Kindle Direct Publishing” platform and it instantly becomes available through the Kindle app on nearly any personal computing device.Another reason to publish with Amazon’s Kindle platform is the fact that Amazon dominates the “eBook” market. Finally, even for those with minimal computing skills, publishing on Amazon’s Kindle platform is relatively pain-free. With these advantages in mind, here is the step-by-step guide to self-publishing your own works with Amazon’s tools.1. Sign Up To Publish Cloud Hosting for WordPress: Why Everyone is Mo… At the bottom of Amazon’s home page is a link to “independently publish with us.” Click the link. You are ready to publish to Kindle. 2. Create Kindle Publishing AccountClick “Get Started” to begin.  Amazon obviously wants everyone to have their work available exclusively through Amazon. Given Amazon’s market share, you may wish to join KDP Select. Of course, this does preclude those who prefer to use Apple’s iBooks service, or other platform, from buying your work for three months. Lead image courtesy of Shutterstock.  You will need to use your existing Amazon account or create one. Note: You may be required to provide additional information, including your banking information, as Amazon will wire your royalties to your account on a quarterly basis. 3. Add TitleWith an account created, Amazon takes you to your “Kindle Dashboard.” This is where you will add your works and access reports on book sales.  brian s hall If your work is ready to be published, click on “Add New Title.” 4. Enter Your Book DetailsHere, you provide Amazon with details on your book, including title, authorship, book type, pricing and more. Note: You do not need to have an ISBN code when using Amazon. Related Posts How Intelligent Data Addresses the Chasm in Cloud In nearly all cases, choosing the 70% royalty is the wise decision. Know this, however:If you price your book below $2.99, Amazon will only offer the 35% royalty option. In some smaller markets, Amazon only offers the 35% royalty. (The 70% option is available in the U.S., Canada, UK and most larger markets.)When you choose the 70% royalty option, Amazon also deducts a small “delivery fee” for each book sold. This is their additional fee for wirelessly distributing your work, and is based on the file size of your work. In the U.S., this fee is presently set at 15 cents per megabyte. (A Word document of approximately 100,000 words and with minimal graphics is typically no more than 1 MB.)There is no delivery charge with the 35% royalty option. Thus, if you charge $2.99 for your work and choose the 70% royalty option, your royalty for each book sold is likely to be:$2.99 x .70 = $2.09 before delivery fee$2.09 – .15 (delivery fee) = $1.94. You earn $1.94 for each book sold. (Authors are solely responsible for paying taxes.)You can designate your book for sale in only certain countries, or worldwide. 10. Finished!Congratulations! You are no longer just an author, but an author whose book(s) is available across the world. Of course, it typically takes Amazon about 24-48 hours before your book is actually available for sale.Once available, I also recommend you create an Amazon author page – a free service that links your bio with your book listing.Some final notes. Throughout this process, Amazon somewhat aggressively promotes their “KDP Select” program. With KDP Select, if you agree to publish your work on Kindle—exclusively—for 90 days (this can vary) and allow Amazon customers to borrow it for free, Amazon will pay you a small fee each time the book is borrowed. Typically, this fee is close to the royalty you would have received had the book actually been purchased.  A poor cover image is likely to turn away potential buyers.7. Time To Upload Your BookNow comes the fun-scary part: uploading your book!  9. Set Your PriceAmazon lets you set nearly any price you wish for your book. However, there are two different royalty options: 35% or 70%. Obviously, you want the 70% royalty.last_img read more

Microsoft’s Best Bet For Next CEO Currently Runs Another Giant Company

first_imgMicrosoft makes money off Windows Phone 8 the same way it makes money off its legacy Windows operating system: by selling licenses to manufacturers for every gadget made using the OS. Microsoft began to change that model last year when it released its own Surface tablets. No longer was Microsoft wholly reliant on manufacturing partners for licensing revenue. That is not the case in smartphones, as Nokia is the de facto manufacturer of Windows Phone devices with its Lumia line of smartphones. Samsung and HTC have made Windows Phone devices in the past, but Nokia makes up about 87% of all Windows Phones sold. See Also After Ballmer: One Microsoft, Or Many?By buying Nokia, Microsoft can consolidate the “devices” portion of its transformation. With devices at the core, Microsoft can extend its services model based on the Azure cloud around the Windows 8 and Windows Phone center. Spreading from that tree would be services like Office and Yammer and its robust security offerings. Given his resume, familiarity with Microsoft and roll as CEO of a leading smartphone manufacturer, Elop would seem to be the perfect person to run that new Microsoft. Given its conservative nature and addiction to its Windows and Office profits, an Elop appointment would likely be approved by Microsoft’s board. To help pay for Nokia (not that Microsoft is short of cash), Microsoft could sell off divisions not relevant to that core such as its Bing search engine and Xbox gaming system. If Not Elop, Then Who?If Microsoft again balks at acquiring Nokia, there are a variety of people that would be well-suited for the role of King of Redmond. Here are four names that could make sense. Related Posts Stephen Elop, CEO of Nokia. Here’s why Elop makes perfect sense. From 2008 to 2010, Elop was the head of Microsoft’s Business Division, which oversaw its Office suite of products. So, he understands the legacy cash cow of Microsoft. He was part of Microsoft’s senior leadership team and has worked for Adobe, Macromedia and Juniper Networks. In September 2010, Elop took over the top role at Nokia. By February 2011, Elop had tied Nokia’s future directly to that of Microsoft when he announced that the Finnish gadget manufacturer would exclusively use Windows Phone as its smartphone operating system. See Also Agony And Ecstasy: Steve Ballmer’s Years At MicrosoftMicrosoft and Nokia have deep financial commitments to each other. Earlier this year word leaked out that Microsoft kicked the tires on buying Nokia outright. The talks fell through, but that does not necessarily mean they are dead.Now is the perfect time for Microsoft to buy Nokia and turn Elop into Ballmer’s successor as CEO.Not Convinced? There Are More CluesIn its official press release this morning, Microsoft used one notable phrase twice in its six-paragraph announcement of Ballmer’s retirement.“Transformation to devices and services company.”It appeared in the first paragraph (emphasis added):“In the meantime, Ballmer will continue as CEO and will lead Microsoft through the next steps of its transformation to a devices and services company that empowers people for the activities they value most.”Then again in the second paragraph with Ballmer’s official statement:“We have embarked on a new strategy with a new organization and we have an amazing Senior Leadership Team. My original thoughts on timing would have had my retirement happen in the middle of our company’s transformation to a devices and services company.We need a CEO who will be here longer term for this new direction.”Over the past couple of years, Microsoft has made it clear that its core products are devices running Windows 8 and services tied to its Azure cloud. Microsoft Office is a relevant part of the services aspect of the company and ties into its cloud strategy. The missing piece? A relevant stake in cash flow of smartphones. What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Tags:#Microsoft#Nokia#Stephen Elop#Steve Ballmer#Windows 8 Thorsten Heins, CEO of BlackBerry: Heins is doing his best to man the floundering ship that is BlackBerry, but he may just be in the wrong place at the wrong time. Heins understands the need to innovate and market in the gadget realm and the services required to make an enticing product portfolio. Instead of buying Nokia, Microsoft could buy BlackBerry and install Heins into the top role. David Oliver Sacks, founder of Yammer: If there is one internal candidate at Microsoft to take over for Ballmer, it should be Sacks. Microsoft bought Yammer in July 2012 and Sacks is currently the corporate VP in charge of the Microsoft Office division. Sacks is known as a champion of innovation and is a member of the infamous “PayPal Mafia” that is credited with helping the technology industry climb out of the Dot Com bubble burst in the mid-2000s. Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfacescenter_img And all across the land, the people rejoice. The King, a resourceful if ineffective leader, has announced his abdication of the throne. His demise is imminent. The citizens of the land, in full huzzah, have begun to imagine what a new kingdom will look like in the new era, with a new King.See also: Ballmer’s Microsoft: All MBA, No Developer SoulMicrosoft’s King—CEO Steve Ballmer—is retiring. Within the next 12 months, a new leader will be chosen to helm the software giant and oversee the transformation of the company from a legacy enterprise and tools company to a device and services company.And there is one man that makes perfect sense to become the new King. A man that has experience in the old Microsoft fiefdom but now controls his own empire, far across the sea. dan rowinski Marissa Mayer, CEO & President of Yahoo: Mayer was essential in helping build Google. She is now stirring the pot at Yahoo and the initial results are intriguing. Mayer is the type of technology executive that could help kick up the stifling culture that Ballmer created at Microsoft during his tenure.Steven Sinofsky, Andreessen Horowitz: He left Microsoft in a controversial move last year, but he understands the product core (in charge of Windows and Office before he left) and was once considered heir apparent to Ballmer. Sinofsky announced that he was joining he board of legendary venture capitalist firm Andreessen Horowitz yesterday, so it is conceivable that he could walk away from that at any time he wanted. Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

Avalanche warning for J&K

first_imgThe Meteorological Department has predicted moderate to heavy snowfall in Jammu and Kashmir during the next couple of days, while a high-danger avalanche warning has been issued for parts of the State.Following the reports, the Jammu & Kashmir government on Sunday asked the authorities concerned to be in a state of readiness to meet the situation.According to an official spokesperson, a high-danger avalanche warning has been issued by Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) for Tangmarg-Gulmarg sector in north Kashmir, medium-danger avalanche warning for Srinagar-Jammu National Highway and a low to medium danger warning for higher reaches of other parts of the State.Minister for Disaster Management, Relief Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Javaid Mustafa Mir has asked the divisional and district disaster management authorities to be in a state of readiness in view of the forecast. He directed the divisional commissioners of Jammu and Srinagar to ensure that necessary measures are put in place to ensure minimum disruption of services.Mr. Mir also said based on the avalanche warnings and adverse weather reports, movement of vehicles on vulnerable roads should be restricted.The Minister, who is personally monitoring the situation, asked the public to take adequate precautionary measures in case of heavy snowfall and to drive vehicles with utmost care.He directed the chief engineer of the Mechanical Engineering department to position their snow-clearing machines at strategic locations beforehand.Mr. Mir also directed the Srinagar Municipal Corporation commissioner and the Power Development department chief engineer to keep their staff in readiness, the spokesperson said.last_img read more

Teng leads Flying V despite playing with flu

first_imgCayetano to unmask people behind ‘smear campaign’ vs him, SEA Games Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games “It’s like the flu game?,” he asked jokingly.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netJeron Teng wasn’t supposed to play, yet on Monday, it was still him who had to carry the biggest weight of the game for Flying V.The La Salle standout took it upon himself to play through his sickness and showed his fortitude as he kept the thunder unbeaten in the 2017 PBA D-League Foundation Cup with a huge 83-78 victory over Marinerong Pilipino.ADVERTISEMENT Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ “He wasn’t feeling well. He didn’t have any time to rest since arriving. And when he came to the venue, he said he really can’t play,” said the mentor.But after seeing his team down by as much as 18 points early, the 6-foot-2 swingman urged his coach to put him in.“Come second quarter, he said, ‘Coach, give me some time to warm up. I’ll play. Let me play and help the team out.’ That fired up the team and gave us a boost,” recounted Altamirano, which he obliged, as Teng spurred an awe-inspiring run to get Flying V back in the game and eventually nab the win.He finished the game with 15 points, six assists, and four rebounds off the bench, including eight of the Thunder’s last nine points, none bigger than his pull-up 15-foot jumper with 41.7 seconds to spare to ice the triumph.Altamirano lauded the leadership qualities Teng has been showing for Flying V this conference, but laughed when asked if this performance was reminiscent to that of Michael Jordan’s in Game 5 of the 1997 NBA Finals.ADVERTISEMENT World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide 1 dead in Cavite blast, fire Tanduay catches fire in the 3rd quarter, racks 3rd straight win WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garagecenter_img LATEST STORIES MOST READ What ‘missteps’? Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. And for coach Eric Altamirano, he can’t say anything less on the fighting spirit of his star.“I’m just really proud of Jeron on how he took it upon himself that even though he wasn’t feeling well, he forced himself to play because he knew how important this game is,” the soft-spoken Altamirano said.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutTeng arrived on Saturday after his stint with Chooks-Pilipinas 3×3 in the 2017 Fiba 3×3 World Cup in Nantes, France and immediately joined the team’s practices for the next two days. He then, fulfilled other obligations through the course of the weekend before joining the Thunder anew for the game.Battling flu on Monday, Teng was already ruled out by Altamirano for the game against the Skippers. Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ View commentslast_img read more